[The primary cause of the initiation of IBD is unclear, but it is well accepted that the process is most likely driven by the microbiome and defective barrier function promoting a vicious cycle that leads to chronic inflammation.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an immune-mediated chronic intestinal condition.]

down-regulation of the immune responses may allow the damaged mucosa to heal and reset the physiological functions of the gut back to normal. Current pharmacotherapy through modulation of neutrophil-derived factors, cytokines, adhesion molecules and reactive oxygen/nitrogen metabolites has been utterly described. Categories of treatment modalities include corticosteroids, aminosalicylates, immunomodulators, antibiotics, probiotics, and a series of unique novel agents. The use of anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody (Infliximab), recombinant anti-inflammatory cytokines and related gene therapy has been covered. In addition, discussions on dietary supplementation and heparin treatment are also included. The anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory potential of investigational agents such as nicotine and the filtered protective compounds from tobacco smoke, as well as active herbal medicinal compounds were tested in our previous experimental works, whereas promising findings have been presented here. With the discovery of novel target-oriented agents, more effective and relatively harmless approaches of IBD therapy could be established to achieve a curative outcome. Indeed, more experimental and clinical studies are needed to confirm the relevance of these therapies.1

 

It is important to note that not only does Crohn's disease affect the small intestine and large intestine, it can also affect the mouth, esophagus, stomach and the anus whereas ulcerative colitis primarily affects the colon and the rectum.[1][2][3]

 

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine

Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the principal types of inflammatory bowel disease.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation and dysfunction of the epithelial barrier.

excessive and tissue- disruptive inflammatory reactions of the gut wall,

The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is highly influenced by ethnicity, location, and environmental factors. Both conditions have their highest incidence in the United Kingdom and North America, and the peak incidence has a bimodal distribution of age of presentation: 15–30 years and 60–80 years of age. Incidence of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease is highest among persons of Ashkenazi Jewish population. Prevalence decreases progressively in non-Jewish white, African American, Hispanic, and Asian populations. Cigarette smoking is associated with a decreased incidence of ulcerative colitis but may cause Crohn disease. Oral contraceptive use is associated with a slightly higher incidence of Crohn disease but not ulcerative colitis. Monozygotic twins are highly concordant for Crohn disease but not ulcerative colitis.


Which of the following statements regarding the epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease is correct?

Answer

 

The answer is D. The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is highly influenced by ethnicity, location, and environmental factors. Both conditions have their highest incidence in the United Kingdom and North America, and the peak incidence has a bimodal distribution of age of presentation: 15–30 years and 60–80 years of age. Incidence of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease is highest among persons of Ashkenazi Jewish population. Prevalence decreases progressively in non-Jewish white, African American, Hispanic, and Asian populations. Cigarette smoking is associated with a decreased incidence of ulcerative colitis but may cause Crohn disease. Oral contraceptive use is associated with a slightly higher incidence of Crohn disease but not ulcerative colitis. Monozygotic twins are highly concordant for Crohn disease but not ulcerative colitis.

 

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