Extrinsic factors are prolonged pressure, moisture, friction, and shear.

Intrinsic causes are the susceptibility of aged skin (less thickness and elasticity), loss of sensation, circulatory compromise, immobility, weight loss, dehydration, malnutrition, and cognitive impairment including sedation.



  • A skin ulcer caused by ischemia due to prolonged pressure or pressure in combination with shear and/or friction.

  • Occur on weight bearing or bony prominences (eg, sacrum, hip, heel).







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