Symptoms

People of all ages, including infants, can experience the symptoms related to WPW.

Symptoms of WPW syndrome are the result of a fast heart rate. They most often appear for the first time in people in their teens or 20s. Common symptoms of WPW syndrome include:

  • Sensation of rapid, fluttering or pounding heartbeats (palpitations)
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fainting
  • Fatigue
  • Anxiety
  • Chest pain

An episode of a very fast heartbeat can begin suddenly and last for a few seconds or several hours. Episodes can occur during exercise or while at rest. Caffeine or other stimulants and alcohol may be a trigger for some people.

Over time, symptoms of WPW may disappear in as many as 25 percent of people who experience them.

Symptoms in more-serious cases

About 10 to 30 percent of people with WPW syndrome occasionally experience a type of irregular heartbeat known as atrial fibrillation. In these people WPW signs and symptoms may include:

  • Chest pain
  • Chest tightness
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Fainting

Symptoms in infants

Signs and symptoms in infants with WPW syndrome may include:

  • Ashen color
  • Restlessness or irritability
  • Rapid breathing
  • Poor eating

 

  • Rapid or irregular heartbeat

 

Signs

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome

     

In Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, an extra electrical pathway between the atria and ventricles. which causes a rapid heartbeat. The extra pathway is present at birth and fairly rare.

The episodes of fast heartbeats usually aren't life-threatening, but serious heart problems can occur. Treatment can stop or prevent episodes of fast heartbeats. A catheter-based procedure (ablation) can permanently correct the heart rhythm problems.

Most people with an extra electrical pathway experience no fast heartbeat. This condition, called Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern, is discovered only by chance during a heart exam. Although WPW pattern is often harmless, doctors might recommend further evaluation before children with WPW pattern participate in high-intensity sports.

Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome care at Mayo Clinic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Most people with pyelonephritis do not have complications if appropriately treated with bacteria-fighting medications called antibiotics.

In rare cases, pyelonephritis may cause permanent kidney scars, which can lead to chronic kidney disease, high blood pressure, and kidney failure. These problems usually occur in people with a structural problem in the urinary tract, kidney disease from other causes, or repeated episodes of pyelonephritis.

Infection in the kidneys may spread to the bloodstream—a serious condition called sepsis—though this is also uncommon.

 

 

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A

A 75-year-old triathlete complains of gradually worsening vision over the past year. It seems to be involving near and far vision. The patient has never required corrective lenses and has no significant medical history other than diet-controlled hypertension. He takes no regular medications. Physical examination is normal except for bilateral visual acuity of 20/100. There are no focal visual field defects and no redness of the eyes or eyelids. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

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The correct answer is A. You answered A.

Age-related macular degeneration is a major cause of painless, gradual bilateral central visual loss. It occurs as nonexudative (dry) or exudative (wet) forms. Recent genetic data have shown an association with the alternative complement pathway gene for complement factor H. The mechanism link for that association is unknown. The nonexudative form is associated with retinal drusen that leads to retinal atrophy. Treatment with vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and zinc may retard the visual loss. Exudative macular degeneration, which is less common, is caused by neovascular proliferation and leakage of choroidal blood vessels. Acute visual loss may occur because of bleeding. Exudative macular degeneration may be treated with intraocular injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor antagonist (bevacizumab or ranibizumab). Blepharitis is inflammation of the eyelids usually related to acne rosacea, seborrheic dermatitis, or staphylococcal infection. Diabetic retinopathy, now a leading cause of blindness in the United States, causes gradual bilateral visual loss in patients with long-standing diabetes. Retinal detachment is usually unilateral and causes visual loss and an afferent pupillary defect.

 

Mr. Jenson is a 40-year-old man with a congenital bicuspid aortic valve who you have been seeing for more than a decade. You obtain an echocardiogram every other year to follow the progression of his disease knowing that bicuspid valves often develop stenosis or regurgitation requiring replacement in middle age. Given his specific congenital abnormality, what other anatomic structure is important to follow on his biannual echocardiograms?

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The correct answer is A. You answered A.

The answer is A. (Chap. 282) Bicuspid aortic valve is among the most common of congenital heart cardiac abnormalities. Valvular function is often normal in early life and thus may escape detection. Due to abnormal flow dynamics through the bicuspid aortic valve, the valve leaflets can become rigid and fibrosed, leading to either stenosis or regurgitation. However, pathology in patients with bicuspid aortic valve is not limited to the valve alone. The ascending aorta is often dilated, misnamed “poststenotic” dilatation; this is due to histologic abnormalities of the aortic media and may result in aortic dissection. It is important to screen specifically for aortopathy because dissection is a common cause of sudden death in these patients.

 


 

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