Normal Processes

Principles of nutrition

provision,

expenditure,

and storage of energy at the whole-body level

functions of nutrients (eg, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleis acids)

assessment of nutritional status across the life span, including calories, protein, essential nutrients, hypoalimentation

protein-calorie malnutrition

vitamin deficiencies and/or toxicities (including megaloblastic anemia with other findings)

Vitamin A Deficiency

Vitamin A Toxicity

Vitamin B1 Deficiency

Vitamin B2 Deficiency

Vitamin B3 Deficiency

Vitamin B6 Deficiency

Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Vitamin D Deficiency

Vitamin D Toxicity

Vitamin E Deficiency

Vitamin E Toxicity

Vitamin K Deficiency

Vitamin K Toxicity


– mineral deficiencies (These called trace minerals or micronutrients because humans need only small amounts of them in the diet. In high doses all nine trace minerals can be toxic in humans.)

 

 

 

sodium,

potassium,

chloride,

calcium,

phosphate,

sulfate,

magnesium,

lead

iron,

fluorine,

copper,

zinc,

chromium,

manganese,

iodine,

 selenium,

and molybdenum.

mineral toxicities

results when a person accidentally consumes too much of any mineral, as with drinking ocean water (sodium toxicity),

or is overexposed to industrial pollutants, household chemicals, or certain drugs.

Iron toxicity in children, for example, frequently results from accidental swallowing of dietary supplement tablets.

(These called trace minerals or micronutrients because humans need only small amounts of them in the diet. In high doses all nine trace minerals can be toxic in humans.)

Mineral toxicity may also refer to toxic conditions resulting from certain diseases or injuries. For example, a disorder known as hemochromatosis leads to iron toxicity, while Wilson's disease results in copper toxicity. Severe trauma can lead to hyperkalemia or potassium toxicity.



Read more: http://www.healthofchildren.com/M/Mineral-Toxicity.html#ixzz4TmmFnWyp

 

Electrolyte and water metabolism

electrolyte metabolism (Na, Cl, potassium, calcium, phosphorus)

water metabolism

Intracellular accumulations (eg, pigments, fats, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, inclusions, vacuoles, lysosomal/glycogen storage disease and structures related to storage diseases, glycogen phosphorylase deficiency, Zellweger syndrome)

Abnormal Processes: Health and Health Maintenance, Screening, Diagnosis, Management, Risks, Prognosis (Step 2 & 3 Emphasis)

Infectious, immunologic, and inflammatory disorders infectious disorders

bacterial:

brucellosis (Brucella spp);

leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans);

Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi);

melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei);

miliary (disseminated) tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis);

tularemia (Francisella tularensis);

toxic shock syndrome;

Q fever (Coxiella burnetii );

anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis (Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species);

rickettsiosis (Rocky Mountain spotted fever [Rickettsia rickettsii])

viral: infectious mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr virus); cytomegalovirus infection; yellow fever; human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)

fungal: blastomycosis (Blastomyces dermatitidis); candidiasis (Candida albicans); coccidioidomycosis (Coccidioides immitis/posadasii); histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum)

parasitic: schistosomiasis (Schistosoma); leishmaniasis (Leishmania spp), visceral (kala- azar); trypanosomiasis/Chagas disease, acute and chronic (Trypanosoma)

immunologic and inflammatory disorders:

acute rheumatic fever;

autoimmune arteritis/vasculitis;

Behçet syndrome;

Churg-Strauss syndrome;

eosinophilic granuloma,

histiocytosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis;

Goodpasture syndrome;

Henoch-Schönlein purpura;

Kawasaki disease;

mixed connective tissue disease;

polyangiitis;

polyarteritis nodosa;

polymyalgia rheumatica, temporal arteritis;

Raynaud disease/Raynaud syndrome;

reactive arthritis, formerly Reiter disease, including Reiter arthritis;

scleroderma (systemic sclerosis);

Sjögren syndrome;

systemic lupus erythematosus;

Takayasu arteritis;

Wegener granulomatosis;

familial Mediterranean fever;

sarcoidosis, Lofgren syndrome

Neoplasms and related disorders

paraneoplastic syndromes:

endocrine (eg, SIADH, Cushing syndrome, hypercalcemia of malignancy [PTHrP]);

hematologic (polycythemia, nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis);

neurologic (myasthenic syndrome, paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, limbic encephalitis, pure sensory neuropathy);

mucocutaneous (eg, acanthosis nigricans);

musculoskeletal (eg, pulmonary osteoarthropathy, polymyositis);

other (membranous glomerulonephritis)

inherited cancer syndromes:

DNA repair abnormalities (eg, Fanconi anemia);

Lynch syndrome (gastrointestinal and female reproductive)

Signs, symptoms, and ill-defined disorders:

arthralgias;

abdominal pain;

chest pain;

cough;

dizziness, light-headedness, syncope, including breath-holding spells with syncope;

dyspnea, shortness of breath;

edema, anasarca;

fatigue;

fever of unknown origin;

Gulf War syndrome;

hemoptysis;

joint pain;

palpitations;

pruritus;

unexpected weight gain/weight loss

Nutrition

protein-calorie malnutrition (kwashiorkor, marasmus)

vitamin deficiencies and/or toxicities:

vitamin A;

vitamin B1, thiamine (eg, Wernicke- Korsakoff syndrome, beriberi);

vitamin B2;

vitamin B3, niacin;

vitamin B6,pyridoxine;

vitamin B9, folic acid;

vitamin B12, cobalamins (pernicious anemia);

vitamin C (scurvy);

vitamin D (rickets);

vitamin E;

vitamin K

mineral deficiencies and/or toxicities

obesity

enteral/parenteral nutrition (TPN)

Toxins and environmental extremes

physical and associated disorders

temperature (eg, hypothermia, hyperthermia, heat stroke) radiation (eg, radon, uranium mining, imaging studies) thermal injury, burns, electrocution, lightning

decreased atmospheric pressure, high-altitude sickness,

increased water pressure

chemical including Gulf War illness/syndrome gases, vapors, smoke inhalation

agricultural hazards (eg, pesticides, green tobacco poisoning, anhydrous ammonia, Agent Orange)

volatile organic solvents

heavy metals

other chemical agents (eg, ethylene glycol, carbon tetrachloride, methanol; BPA)

principles of poisoning and therapy (eg, ASA, acetaminophen)

Venomous bites and stings: hymenoptera bites and stings; scorpion bites; snake bites; spider bites; jellyfish stings

Fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance disorders

fluid volume and electrolyte/ion disorders:

fluid volume disorders;

dehydration;

hypovolemia;

volume overload;

electrolyte disorders;

hyponatremia,

hypernatremia;

hypokalemia,

hyperkalemia;

hypocalcemia,

hypercalcemia;

hypophosphatemia,

hyperphosphatemia;

hypomagnesemia

hypermagnesemia

acid-base disorders:

metabolic acidosis;

metabolic alkalosis;

respiratory acidosis;

respiratory alkalosis;

mixed acid-base disturbances

Abuse

child, nonaccidental trauma/inflicted head trauma/factitious disorder by proxy

Child, sexual abuse

intimate partner abuse, sexual, emotional, and physical including injuries (eg, rib

fractures) related to abuse

elder abuse, sexual, emotional, and physical including injuries (eg, rib fractures) related to abuse

sexual assaulted person(raped)

Multiple trauma (eg, prioritization, blast injury involving more than one organ system)

Shock: cardiogenic, hypovolemic, neurogenic, septic,

Sepsis

bacteremia,

systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS),

refractory, multiorgan dysfunction syndrome

meningococcemia

Genetic metabolic and developmental disorders multifactorial: VATER syndrome, association syndromes

large genomic changes:

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome;

Down syndrome;

Prader-Willi syndrome

enzymatic/metabolic:

alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency;

porphyria;

inborn errors of metabolism (eg, maple syrup urine disease, diseases involving urea cycle);

storage diseases (eg, Fabry disease, Tay-Sachs disease, glycogen storage disease, mucopolysaccharidoses)

structural protein disorders:

amyloidosis;

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome;

immotile cilia syndrome (Kartagener syndrome; primary ciliary dyskinesia);

Marfan syndrome

intracellular/extracellular transport receptors: cystic fibrosis; hemochromatosis; Wilson disease

triplet repeat/RNA disorders:fragile X syndrome

Adverse effects of drugs on multisystem disorders: drug-induced electrolyte abnormalities and acid base-disorders (eg, albuterol [metabolic acidosis], prednisone, diuretics, alcohol, potassium, calcium, phosphate, and magnesium.